Terluran® GP-22 is an easy-flow, general purpose injection molding grade with high resistance to impact and heat distortion; intended for a wide range of applications, particularly in the housings sector.
- Excellent colorability
- Medium flow
- Good impact resistance
- Good heat distortion resistance
- High quality surface finish and gloss
- Great mechanical strength and rigidity
- Injection molding
- Appliance housings
- Household and sanitary appliances
- Automotive components
- Consumer products
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Properties of TERLURAN GP-22
Property, Test Condition Standard Unit Values Rheological Properties Melt Flow Rate, 200 °C/5 kg ASTM D 1238 g/10 min 1.5 Melt Flow Rate, 220 °C/10 kg ASTM D 1238 g/10 min 19 Melt Volume Rate 230 °C/3.8 kg ASTM D 1238 cm³/10 min 4.8 Mechanical Properties Izod Notched Impact Strength, 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D 256 ft-lb/in 5.6 Izod Notched Impact Strength, -18 °C (0 °F) ASTM D 256 ft-lb/in 1.9 Izod Notched Impact Strength, -30 °C (-22 °F) ASTM D 256 ft-lb/in 1.1 Tensile Stress at Yield, 23 °C ASTM D 638 psi 6520 Tensile Modulus ASTM D 638 psi x 10³ 334 Elongation, Failure ASTM D 638 % 2.6 Flexural Strength, 23 °C ASTM D 790 psi 9430 Flexural Modulus, 23 °C ASTM D 790 psi x 10³ 334 Hardness, Rockwell ASTM D 785 R scale 103 Thermal Properties Vicat Softening Temperature, VST/A/50 (10N, 50 °C/h) ISO 306 °F 204 DTUL @ 264 psi - Unannealed ASTM D 648 °F 172 DTUL @ 66 psi - Unannealed ASTM D 648 °F 195 DTUL @ 264 psi - Annealed ASTM D 648 °F 210 DTUL @ 66 psi - Annealed ASTM D 648 °F 219 Electrical Properties Dielectric Constant at 106 CPS (1000000 Hz, 0,0394 in) ASTM D 150 - 2.8 Volume Resistivity ASTM D 257 - >1013 Other Properties Density ASTM D 792 lb/in³ 1.04 Water Absorption, Saturated at 23 °C ASTM D 570 % 1 Processing Linear Mold Shrinkage ASTM D 955 in/in 0.004 - 0.007 Melt Temperature Range - °F 425 - 500 Mold Temperature Range - °F 85 - 140 Injection Velocity - in/s 8 Drying Temperature - °F 175
Typical values for uncolored products
Please note that all processing data stated are only indicative and may vary depending on the individual processing complexities.
Please consult our local sales or technical representatives for details.
Processing of TERLURAN GP-22
ABS can be processed by any process suitable for thermoplastic molding compounds.
Under unfavorable storage or transport conditions, ABS can absorb small amounts of moisture. This can cause surface faults during processing which are visible on the finished article. To avoid these, predrying to a residual moisture content of <0.1% is generally sufficient. This can be achieved using, for example, dry air driers, vacuum driers or circulating driers; from 2 to 4 hours at 80°C is usually sufficient. Depending on temperature, humidity and the proportion of fresh air, circulating driers require longer drying times. If a vented screw with adequate venting capability is used, predrying is unnecessary, as long as the pellets have not become excessively moist during storage.
Compatibility with other thermoplastics
ABS is incompatible in the melt with most thermoplastics, such as polyolefins, polystyrenes and polyamides. Delamination occurs and the moldings have low strength.
RecyclingIf its previous processing has not involved contamination or thermal degradation, ABS can be reused in the form of regrind. Since the surface area of regrind is higher than that of pellets, regrind can absorb moisture more rapidly and usually has to be dried before reprocessing. It is normally advisable to use virgin granules for moldings which are subject to high quality requirements.
ABS can be processed on any commercially available injection-molding machine. ABS’ wide processing range, good thermal stability, low mold shrinkage and low tendency to warp make injection molding relatively easy. The moldings generally have surfaces with good luster. The highest surface gloss is achieved at high injection rates and the highest possible mold surface temperature, insofar as molding and gate geometries permit.
Gate and mold design
In general, any of the known types of gate may be used.
Gating systems should be adequately dimensioned; narrow gates require excessively high melt temperatures and injection pressures, with the resultant possibility of streaking on the surface of the molding, or gas burning. Too rapid freezing of the melt at the gate can lead to voids and sinks in the molding, since the contraction of the melt during the hold pressure phase cannot be sufficiently compensated.
Draft angles and ejectors
The favorable surface slip properties of ABS grades mean that injection moldings made from them are easy to demold, and even complicated moldings can be produced with success. Draft angles of from 0.5 to 1° are generally sufficient. In the case of textured surfaces, the draft angles must be larger.
The ejector or stripper plates should have as large a surface as possible, so that the molding is not punctured or distorted during demolding.
Mold temperature control
The gloss, shrinkage and, within certain limits, the mechanical and thermal properties of the molding are influenced by the mold surface temperature. Higher mold surface temperatures give higher gloss, better weld line strengths and lower intrinsic stresses, and as a consequence a lower tendency to warp. Mold surface temperatures up to 80°C have proven successful in practice. Even at temperatures in the upper part of this range, ABS grades harden rapidly, because of their high heat resistance. Even under these conditions, therefore, short cooling times resulting in more cost-effective cycle times are achievable.
ABS is usually processed at melt temperatures from 230 to 260°C. The melt temperature should be monitored with a needle pyrometer.
Even at high screw rotation rates, plasticating of ABS molding compounds proceeds smoothly and without thermal degradation. It is frequently possible to set the individual heating zones of the plasticizing cylinder to the same temperature. For processing temperatures at the upper end of the range and/or for long cycle times, the temperature of the first heater band (near to the feed hopper) should be set somewhat lower, in order to prevent premature melting of the granules in the feed zone (bridging).
The processing shrinkage is usually no greater than 0.7%. The post-shrinkage is usually negligible. Although the shrinkage is primarily a property of the material, it is also influenced by the shape of the molding and by the processing conditions. The shrinkage in different regions of a molding can therefore vary greatly. In zones subject to, for example, a high holding pressure, a value of close to 0% can be achieved.
Special injection molding processes
ABS is especially suitable for use in multi-component injection molding, e.g. hard-soft combinations or combinations of several colors or of different products at least partially compatible with one another, such as Luran (SAN), Luran S (ASA), other styrene copolymers or certain thermoplastic polyurethanes.
ABS can also be used in the gas assisted injection molding process. Back filling onto textiles or films in a single process is also possible: in-mold labeling and in-mold decoration.
Machining and post-processing
Semifinished products made from ABS are easy to machine, i.e. die-punch, saw, drill, mill, turn etc., using conventional metal- and woodworking equipment.
Tools used for machining brass and bronze may be used. Because heat dissipation is slow, water cooling is frequently necessary, even at low cutting speeds.
Adhesive bonding and welding
ABS moldings can be bonded easily to one another using solvents, such as methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, ethyl acetate, dichloroethylene or cyclohexanone. ABS moldings can also be bonded to moldings made from Luran S (ASA), Luran 378 P or 388 S (SAN), by the same method. If adhesion problems occur, we advise you to seek information from the adhesives industry, which offers a wide variety of suitable special adhesives. Semifinished products and moldings made from ABS can be welded by hot-plate welding, spin welding, vibration welding and ultrasonic welding. Since the quality and the appearance of the welded joint can be strongly influenced by machine parameters, as well as by material properties and the type of joint surface, exploratory experiments are essential in each individual case. Ultrasonic welding can also be used to bond ABS moldings to moldings made from related thermoplastics (SAN, ASA, PVC and PMMA).
Painting, printing and vacuum metalizing
ABS may be easily and permanently printed, flocked, embossed, painted or vacuum metallized.
In painting, the applied layer should not be too brittle; otherwise the impact strength of the finished article is greatly reduced. Solvents used in surface coating systems have to be specially chosen to avoid stress cracking of the substrate. Detailed information on surface-coating processes is available from the manufacturers of such coatings.
Compared with conventional processes for marking, laser marking gives high flexibility and speed, wear resistance and security against counterfeiting. A particular advantage is that moldings can be marked without contact and while in motion. Usually, no pretreatment is necessary. For flexible laser marking, Nd:YAG lasers are most frequently used. Mask laser marking, using an excimer laser source or certain CO2 laser sources, is suitable for marking ABS. Pale colors are easily laser-marked, but even dark colors can be marked, using a light-colored marking for example. The quality of the marking (contrast, uniformity, definition) depends mainly on the pigment formulation and the degree of homogeneity.
Please refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of the corresponding ABS grade.
Further information concerning the MSDS as well as other information regarding safety and ecological aspects can be viewed under the menu Styrolution website, www.styrolution.com.
Recycling and disposal
Clean wastes consisting solely of ABS can easily be recycled by remelting. Wastes arising during injection molding or thermoforming, for example, can be fed back to the process as regrind. Used parts consisting solely of ABS can also be recycled, after cleaning and size reduction, to give new moldings. Depending on the age of the used parts to be recycled and the use to which they have been put, certain properties such as mechanical properties, color etc., may have undergone change; it is therefore necessary to check the suitability of the recycled material for its intended application in each individual case.
Wastes which do not consist solely of ABS may, by mixing with other post-consumer plastics waste, be usefully recycled using feedstock methods. The plastics are converted into chemical and petrochemical raw materials which can be used again for the manufacture of new plastics or of other products.
Taking official regulations into account, ABS may also be incinerated in a suitable incinerator, e.g. a household waste incinerator, and the resultant energy put to use. The fuel value of ABS is about 10 kWh/kg or about 70% higher than that of dry wood. Complete combustion gives CO2, water and nitrogen, the nitrogen being oxidized to a limited extent to give nitrogen oxides. This recycling in the form of energy protects the environment and saves fossil fuels.
If recycling is not possible, ABS can normally be landfilled (cf. ABS safety data sheets). In Germany, ABS wastes are classified under Waste Code No. 57129 (other solidified plastic wastes). Under the German waste monitoring regulations, solidified plastic wastes of this type do not require any special disposal measures. As far as we are able to determine, ABS wastes are inert in landfill. ABS is classified as presenting no threat to ground water.
Safety Data Sheet